South Central BOCES
Special Education


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Satellite Offices

Central Satellite
Special Education Services
Huerfano School District RE-1
201 East Fifth St.
Walsenburg, CO 81089
Phone: (719) 738-1701
Fax: (719) 738-2174
Secretary: Sue Noden

Southern Satellite
Special Education Services
Trinidad School District #1
Physical:612 Park St.
Mailing:215 South Maple
Trinidad, CO 81082
Phone: (719) 846-4484
Fax: (719) 846-3220
Secretary: Diane Gagliardi

Northern Satellite
Special Education Services
South Central BOCES Office
323 S. Purcell Blvd.
Pueblo West, CO 81007
Phone: (719) 647-0023

General Services

  • Child Find
  • 0-3 Identification
  • 3-5 Identification/Services
  • 5-21 Identification/Services
  • Transition
  • Psychological Assessments
  • Psychological Counceling
  • Audiological Services
  • Audiologogical Soundproof Booth - Pueblo West Office
  • Speech Language Therapy
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Physical Therapy
  • Teacher of the Deaf/Hard of Hearing
  • Teacher of the Visually Impaired
  •                

Special Education Vocabulary

A
Abduction:
Movement of limbs from the midline of the body.
 
Acuity:
An indicator of how well a sense organ (eyes/ears) is working.
 
Adduction:
Movement of limbs toward the midline of the body.
 
Affective Domain:
Involving attitudes, interests and values.
 
Anoxia:
Oxygen deprivation.
 
Aphasia:
A partial or complete loss of ability to speak or understand spoken language as a result of an injury.
 
Articulation:
The speech sounds made, utilizing tongue, lips and breath.
 
Aspiration:
Withdrawal of material from the body by suctioning.
 
Astigmatism:
A defect in curvature of the eye, resulting in blurred vision.
 
Athetosis:
These are random, involuntary movements of the limbs, usually jerking and writhing.
 
Audiologist:
A non-medical specialist who focuses on hearing and hearing aids.
 
Auditory:
Referring to the sense of hearing.
 
Auditory discrimination:
The ability to hear the differences between sounds.
 
Auditory Memory:
The ability to remember what is heard in a meaningful way.
 
Aura:
A sensation (smell, taste, feeling) that may precede a seizure, allowing the individual to be aware of it's coming.
 
Aural:
Referring to the sense of hearing.
 
Audiometer:
A specially designed electronic unit which produces signals (sounds) used in evaluation hearing.
 
Autism:
A severely incapacitating developmental disability that usually appears during the first three years of life, causing abnormal responses to the environment (withdrawal, self stimulation behaviors, repeated motions or movement patterns) and delayed speech/language skills and retarding social interaction.
 

B
Behavior Modification:
A technique to change human behavior. Behavior is an observed set of consequences developed and consistently applied to a specific behavior that is wished to be altered.
 
Bilateral:
The use of both sides of the body in a simultaneous, parallel fashion.
 
Bilingual:
Using or able to use two languages.
 
Binocular:
Use of both eyes together.
 
Body Image:
A complete awareness of one's own body and its possibilities of movement and performance.
 
Braille:
A system of dots used in touch reading, developed in 1829 for those unable to see well enough to read large print. It uses six embossed dots called cells, three dots long and two dots wide from left to right.
 
Bright's Disease:
An inflammation of the kidney affecting the vascular system.

C
CBC:
Complete blood count.
 
Cephalic:
Pertaining to the head.
 
Cerebral Palsy:
Any one of a group of conditions affecting control of the motor system; disorder of posture and movement resulting from damage to the central nervous system, due to lesions in various parts of the brain.
 
Cleft Palate:
A congenial split of the opening in the roof of the mouth and at the upper lip region which allows an unusual amount of air to be released through the nasal opening (Incidence 1:700).
 
Clonic:
A spasm in which rigidity and relaxation alternate in rapid succession.
 
Congenital:
Present at birth.
 
Contracture:
Permanent loss of joint mobility.
 
Cretinism:
Severe thyroid deficiency, characterized by physical deformity, dwarfism and mental retardation.
 
CSF:
Cerebrospinal Fluid.
 
Cystic Fibrosis:
Hereditary pulmonary disease, due to dysfunction of the pancreas, accompanied by thickening mucous, excessive sweating, recurrent lung infections, normal intelligence; resulting in death (Incidence 1:2,000).

D
Decoding:
The ability to hear and breakdown individual sounds of words into a meaningful whole.
 
Diabetes:
A disorder of carbohydrate metabolism impairing the body to use sugar.
 
Diplegia:
Partial paralysis of the body with the lower extremities more affected than the upper limbs.
 
Directionality:
The ability to be able to decide where things are...whether they are up or down (vertically) or on one side of the body or the other (laterality).
 
Discrimination:
The process of detecting differences between or among things through our senses.
 
Distractibility:
Inability to hold one's attention on a given task for more than a few seconds.
 
Down's Syndrome:
A condition associated with a chromosomal abnormality usually causing some degree of mental retardation.
 
Due Process:
All legal matters are handled exactly as directed by current legislation.
 
Dysarthria:
A paralytic condition effecting articulation of the production of speech.
 
Dyscalculia:
The loss of the ability to compute simple math operations.
 
Dysgraphia:
Inability to develop fine motor skill necessary for adequate handwriting.
 
Dyslexia:
An inability to read or to learn to read often attributed to some sort of neurological dysfunction.
 
Dysnomia:
Difficulty in recalling or remembering words (names of people or objects).
 
Dystrophy:
A disorder characterized by weakening degeneration or abnormal development of muscle.

E
Echolalia:
Senseless repetition of words phrases or sentences, without understanding of what is said.
 
EKG-Electrocardiogram:
A graphic picture of electrical charges caused by contraction of the heart muscle.
 
EEG Electroencephalograph:
A recording of electrical energy generated during brain functioning, commonly referred to as brain waves.
 
Electromyogram:
An electric test of muscle contraction.
 
Emotionally Disturbed:
Someone who exhibits behavior of a significant intensity and frequency, which is deemed socially unacceptable by the majority of society.
 
Encephalitis:
An infectious inflammation of the brain (viral).
 
ENT:
Referring to ears, nose, throat.
 
Endogenous:
Caused by genetic factors.
 
Epilepsy:
A convulsive disorder marked by seizures of varying duration.
 
Etiology:
The cause or origin of a condition.
 
Eustachian Tube:
The tube connecting the middle ear with the back of the nose and throat.
 
Exogenous:
Not caused by genetics or heredity.
 
Expressive Language:
Speech and writing necessary to communicate with others.

F
Figure ground perception:
Ability to distinguish a form or pattern against a distracting background.
 
Fine motor:
Usually involves the use of hands, small muscles, tasks requiring eye-hand coordination.
 
Frequency:
In hearing it refers to the pitch of sound.
 
Frustration Level:
A level where learning material is too difficult and in too large a quantity to the point of being emotionally painful and exhausting.

G
Galactosemia:
Enlarged liver and jaundice in newborn period, cataracts, mental retardation, increased risk of infection due to inability to metabolize sugar.
 
Glaucoma:
An eye disease caused by increased intra-ocular pressure.
 
Glucose:
Type of sugar that circulates in the blood and is used by the body for energy.
 
Gran Mal:
An epileptic seizure in which convulsions are severe and widespread with prolonged loss of awareness.
 
Graphene:
The written symbol which corresponds to a sound.
 
Gross motor:
Large muscles of the body involved in the use of entire body activities. (walking, skipping, etc.)
 
Gustatory:
Pertaining to the sense of taste.

H
Haptic:
Refers to the kinesthetic and tactile senses. (touch/ movement)
 
Hematology:
Medical specialty dealing with blood disorders.
 
Hemiplegia:
Partial paralysis of the body, with only one side of the body involved.
 
Hemophilia:
Sex linked, heredity disease where the blood lacks a clotting element causing the danger of excessive bleeding.
 
Heterogeneous:
Grouping where various abilities are mixed together.
 
Homogeneous:
Group according to ability.
 
Hurler's syndrome:
Short stature, progressive mental retardation, coarse facial appearance, deafness, clouding of cornea, body abnormalities of spine and limbs.
 
Hydrocephalus:
Where cerebral-spinal fluid exerts pressure on the brain, leading to an enlargement of the head; if detected early pressure can relieved surgically by inserting a drainage tube (shunt) without this, severe brain damage may result.
 
Hyperactivity:
Excessive mobility or motor restlessness.
 
Hypoactive:
Less than the normal amount of body movement showing no interest in anything.
 
Hypocalcemia:
Abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood.
 
Hypoglycemia:
Low blood sugar.
 
Hypothermia:
Low body temperature, putting individual at risk.
 
Hypotonia:
Decreased muscle tone. (floppy, flaccid)
 
Hypoxia:
Reduction of oxygen content in body tissues.

I
Icterus:
Jaundice.
 
IEP:
Individual Education Program.
 
Ileostomy:
Surgery to allow the part of the intestine above the colon to empty directly through the abdomen wall.
 
Ileum:
Lower portion of the small intestine.
 
Impulsive:
Acting without thinking in an uninhibited way.
 
Incidence:
Range of something occurring in terms of a disease or syndrome.
 
Insulin:
A protein hormone produced by the pancreas and secreted into the blood where it regulates carbohydrate (sugar/metabolism).
 
Iris:
The circular colored membrane behind the cornea of the eye, perforated by the pupil.

J
Jaundice:
Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood.

K
Kernicterus:
Damage to the nervous system caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood, causing mental retardation, choreoathetoid cerebral palsy, upward gaze paralysis and high frequency hearing loss caused by RH incompatibility.
 
Kinesthetic:
Relating to the ability to perceive through movement.

L
Lactose:
Sugar found in milk.
 
Laterality:
Internal awareness of the right and left sides of the body and their differences.
 
Lesion:
Change in tissue as a result of injury or loss of function due to disease.
 
Least restrictive environment:
The assurance that handicapped children will be educated with non-handicapped children to maximum extent appropriate.
 
Linguistics:
The scientific study of the patterns of language.
 
Locomotion:
Movement from one place to another location.
 
Lumbar:
Pertaining to the lower back.

M
Macrocephaly:
Abnormal largeness of the head, often seen in hydrocephalus.
 
Mastoid:
Bone resting behind the ear.
 
Marfan Syndrome:
Tall, thin stature, spider like limbs, dislocation of lens, usually normal intelligence (incidence 1/66,000)
 
Meninges:
The three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
 
Meningitis:
Inflammation or infection of the meninges.
 
Meningocele:
A birth defect where there is protrusion of the meninges through an opening in the skull or spinal column (spina bifida).
 
Meningomyelocoele:
hernial protrusion of a part of the meninges and substance of the cord through a defect in the vertebral column, often causing paralysis below the level of the lesion.
 
Mental age:
Age level of mental ability determined by standardized intelligence tests.
 
Microcephaly:
A small head more that two standard deviations below the average size (microcephalic).
 
Midline:
The child’s own center of gravity.
Mononucleosis:
A viral illness whose symptoms include fever, malaise, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes and an enlarged spleen.
 
Morphene:
Smallest linguistic unit of meaning (i.e. boy).
 
Monoplegia:
Type of cerebral palsy in which only one limb is effected.
 
Motivation:
Desire to accomplish a goal.
 
Multiple Sclerosis:
A degenerative nervous system disease, progressive spacisity and paralysis.
 
Multisensory:
Teaching to two or more senses/modalities at a time to achieve greater success in learning.
 
Myopia:
A nearsightedness.
 
Mylomeningocele:
A sac containing part of a malformed spinal cord protruding through a hole in the spine.

N
Nasality:
The quality of speech sounds when the nasal cavity is used as a resonator.
 
Nasogastric tube:
A plastic feeding tube placed in the nose and extended into the stomach.
 
Neonatal period:
The first 30 days of life.
 
Nephrosis:
A non-inflammatory, degenerative condition of the kidney.
 
Neurological impress method:
A reading technique where the student and the instructor sit together and read orally the same material at a fairly rapid pace, as the student or teacher points to words read.
 
Neurologist:
A medical specialist who evaluates the development and function of the central nervous system, often dealing with cerebral palsy, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.
 
Nonverbal:
Does not develop speech and language.
 
Norm referenced test:
A test in which the person's score is compared to how others did on the same test, such as a percentile.
 
Nystagmus:
Continual rolling movement of the eyeballs.

O
Occupational Therapy (O.T.):
Treatment given to help the individual toward the greatest possible independence in daily living. Involves the patient in active participation of the treatment toward or speeding up the recovery/rehabilitation process.
 
Ocular:
Pertaining to the eye.
 
Olfactory:
Pertaining to the sense of smell.
 
Ophthalmologist:
A medical doctor who specializes in the care of the entire eye.
 
Optician:
A person who makes corrective eye glasses according to a prescription.
 
Optometrist:
A non-medical specialist who tests a person's eyes for defective vision and prescribes corrective lenses.
 
Orthopedist:
A medical doctor specializing in disorders of the bones and connective tissues.
 
Ossicles:
The three tiny bones of the middle ear. (malleus hammer/incus/anvil/stapes/stirrup)
 
Osteomyelitis:
A crippling disease of the long bone often of the lower extremities.
 
Otitis media:
A bacterial or viral infection of the middle ear.
 
Otolaryngologist:
A medical doctor specializing in anatomy, functions and diseases of the ears, nose and throat.
 
Otoxic:
Caused by poison or toxin, creating damage to the ear.
 
Overloading:
When a person cannot absorb all the information received through one or more learning modalities.

P
Palate:
Roof of the mouth.
 
Paraplegia:
Paralysis of legs and lower part of the body--both motion and sensation are effected.
 
Paresis:
Partial paralysis/weakness.
 
P.C.:
Latin abbreviation for after a meal.
 
Perception:
The ability to recognize/process information received through the senses.
 
Perceptual:
The period from 28 weeks gestation to one week following delivery.
 
Perseveration:
A tendency to continue doing something after it is no longer appropriate--repetitive movements or actions.
 
Petit mal:
Epileptic seizure in which there is momentary dizziness or blackout, staring, or some automatic action which the individual has no knowledge.
 
Phoneme:
Smallest unit of sound in a language.
 
Phonics:
The study of speech sounds as it pertains to reading/speaking.
 
Photophobia:
Abnormal intolerance to light.
 
Physical Therapy (P.T.):
A therapist treating the problems of coordination of large motor skills and treats disorders of the bones, joints, muscles and nerves--prescribed by a physician (use of heat, light, massage and exercise).
 
Planter flexion:
Pointing the foot downward, prone, lying on the stomach.
 
Poliomyelitis:
Type of spinal paralysis.
 
Postural drainage:
A method of tilting a body or small child in various positions to allow mucus to drain easily from the lungs.
 
Prenatal:
Before birth.
 
Postnatal:
After birth.
 
Prosthesis:
An artificial replacement of an absent part of the body.
 
Psychiatrist:
A medical doctor specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease and mental illness and also prescribes medicine.
 
Psychologist:
A non-medical specialist who diagnosis and treats mental illness without the use of prescribed drugs.

Q
q.:
Medical abbreviations for every.  
 
q.d.:
Medical abbreviations for every day.
 
q.h.:
Medical abbreviations for every hour.
 
q.i.d.:
Medical abbreviations for four times a day.
 
q.o.d.:
Medical abbreviations for every other day.
 
q.s.:
A sufficient amount.
 
q.wk.:
Medical abbreviations for every week.
 
Quadriplegia:
Paralysis of all four limbs.
 
Quadruplegia:
A type of cerebral palsy in which, the whole body is affected.

R
Receptive language:
Language that is spoken or written by others and received/understood by the individual.
 
Reflex:
Automatic and involuntary response to a stimulus.
 
Reinforcement:
Any response to an act which tends to have an effect on whether or not that act is repeated.
 
Respirator:
A mechanical device to assist with or substitute for breathing.
 
Retina:
The photosensitive nerve layer of the eyes.
 
Retinitis pigmentosa:
Diseases associated with retinal degeneration and progressive blindness, starts with night blindness usually in adolescence or adult life.
 
Retinoblastoma:
A tumor of the retina.
 
Retrolental fibroplasia:
An eye disease of premature infants.
 
Reye's Syndrome:
Acute encephalopathy following a viral illness, reversible live abnormalities and blood clotting disturbance, brain swelling (1/100,000 incidence).
 
Rubella:
A mild German measles, causing congenital defects in a child if the mother has the disease during pregnancy.
 
Rubeola:
Ten day or "hard or red" measles.

S
Scoliosis:
Lateral curvature of the spine.
 
Seizure:
Sudden attacks occurring when a group of brain cells become overactive, causing disharmony in the brain. It may be located in one or more areas in the brain.
 
Self concept:
A person's idea of himself/herself.
 
Sensorineural hearing loss:
A hearing impairment resulting from damage to the structures of the inner ear or the nerves that conduct sound impulses to the brain.
 
Sequential memory:
A specific order of items to be remembered.
 
S.I.D.S.:
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome--infant death due to unknown causes.
 
Snellen chart:
A visual screening test to measure visual acuity at 20 feet from the chart.
 
Spastic:
Increased muscle tone so that muscles are stiff and movements are difficult.
 
Spatial orientation:
Accurate interpretation of the space around a person in terms of distance, direction, form and position.
 
Sphincter:
Circular muscle surrounding an opening in the body.
 
Spina bifida:
A congenital malformation in which the bony tube covering the spinal cord does not completely form, leaving the spinal cord exposed or protruding.
 
Strabismus:
An eye condition in which there is a lack of coordination of the eye muscles characterized by squinting or cross-eyedness.
 
Supine:
Laying on the back.
 
Syndrome:
Set of symptoms which occur together.

T
Tactile:
Pertaining to the sense of touch.
 
Tactile discrimination:
Ability to identify and match objects by touching and feeling.
 
Task analysis:
Finding the individual parts that make up a particular task.
 
t.i.d.:
The medical abbreviation for Latin words meaning "three times a day".
 
Tonic neck reflex:
When the turning of the head causes one arm to straighten and stiffen and the other to bend and stiffen.
 
Tracking:
Shown a letter, word, or number, the ability to pick it out from a group of words, letters or numbers on a page.
 
Tremor:
Involuntary trembling or quivering.

U
Ultrasound:
A technique in which echoes of high frequency sound waves produce a picture of body tissues.
 
Uvula:
The fleshy, pendant like lobe at the middle of the posterior border of the soft palate.

V
Vascular:
Pertaining to blood vessels.
 
Vestibular apparatus:
Three right shaped bodies located in the labyrinth of the ear that are involved in the maintenance of balance.
 
Vestibular:
A person's sense of motion and movement.
 
Visual association:
An organizing process where one is able to relate concepts presented visually.
 
Visual closure:
Can identify a visual stimulus from an incomplete visual presentation.
 
Visual discrimination:
Ability to visually differentiate letters and words.
 
Visual motor skills:
An ability to coordinate vision with the movements of the body to accomplish a task.
 
Visual perception:
The identification, organization and interpretation of visual data received through the eyes.
 
Visual sequential memory:
Ability to retain a sequence of what one sees.
 
Vocabulary:
The ability to understand the meanings of words.
 
Voluntary movements:
Movements done with intention and with concentration.

W
Werdnig-Hoffman Syndrome:
A form of spinal muscular atrophy that leads to respiratory difficulties and severe muscle weakness in infancy, normal intelligence. Survival is unusual past childhood.

X
X-Linked Recessive Trait:
A trait transmitted by a gene located on the X-chromosome, also called sex-linked, passed on by a carrier-mother to an affected son.

Y
None:
Currently no "Y" words.

Z
Zonular Fibers:
The fibers that keep the lens of the eye in place; contraction and relaxation of these fibers permit accommodation of the lens.

Legal Updates

Education Web Sites

Listed below are links to web sites that have useful information pertaining to special education.
www.interventioncentral.org
www.education-world.com
www.educationnews.org
www.teachersnet.com
www.new-teacher.com
www.glavac.com
school.discovery.com
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